Jop, nehledal jsem tady (zatím) přímé zdroje, ale naprosto souhlasím s tím že to vypadalo tak, že byli rádi, že se vůbec na nějaký odpor při obléhání vzmohli.
Nicméně zdroje dokládají, že roku 1204 Oheň použili a nezapomněli ho ani do roku 1453, kdy byl použit opět.
Nějaká další písmenka.
We hear of the use of the fire on a grand scale in A. D. 941, when a
great fleet of Rus ships advanced under their leader Igor from Kiev across
the Black Sea. A vivid account has been left by Liutprand, Bishop of Cremona,
who visited Constantinople in 949, and whose step-father had been
diplomat there before him in 942. In Book V of Liutprand's Antapodosis,
following the important passage where he states that the Rus were Northmen
from Russia, he describes the anxiety of the Emperor Romanus I
when their fleet was approaching the city:
První masivní použití Ohně bylo roku 941 našeho letopočtu. Rusáci pod vedením Igora napadli Byzanc. Vypráví návštěvník Konstantinopole.
Tolik uvozující text od Davidsona, už jsem ho citoval. Následně uvádí text primárního zdroje.
He spent some sleepless nights in reflection while Igor devastated the coast lands, and
at last he was informed that there were fifteen old battered galleys in the yards which had
been allowed to go out of commission. Thereupon he called . . . the ship carpenters into
his presence and said to them: 'Make haste and get the old galleys ready for service
without delay. Moreover put the fire-throwers not only in the bows but at the stern and
both sides as well.' When the galleys had been equipped according to his instructions, he
collected his most skilful sailors and bade them give King Igor battle. So they set out;
and when King Igor saw them on the open sea he ordered his men to capture them alive
and not kill them. But the merciful and compassionate Lord willed not only to protect
his worshippers who pray to him and beg his aid, but also to give them the honour of
victory. Therefore he lulled the winds and calmed the waves; for otherwise the Greeks
would have had difficulty in hurling their fire. As they lay, surrounded by the enemy, the
Greeks began to fling their fire all around; and the Rus, seeing the flames, threw themselves
in haste from their ships, preferring to be drowned in the water rather than burned
alive in the fire. Some sank to the bottom under the weight of their cuirasses and helmets
which they were never to see again; some caught fire as they swam among the billows ;
not a man that day escaped save those who managed to reach the shore. For the Rus
ships by reason of their small size can move in very shallow water where the Greek galleys
because of their greater draught cannot pass.
Tohle je jeden ze zdrojů, který zdůrazňuje naprostou nezbytnost klidného moře pro použití plamenometů.
Plamenomety byly typicky na přídi, daly se zjevně namontovat kamkoli, přijde mi, že Romanus I. byl připraven lodě obětovat, nakonec to nebylo potřeba.
Tady máme záznam i z druhé strany z podobné doby, což je hezké. Následuje Davidsonův úvod
A corroborative account is given in the Russian Primary Chronicle in
the entry for the years 935-417 Here the damage done by the invaders
along the shores of the Black Sea is described: the killing of the inhabitants,
the burning of monasteries and the taking of booty. An attack by
Greek troops on the Rus on land was indecisive, and the enemy took to
their ships; thereupon:
Následuje text z Ruské kroniky:
Theophanes pursued them in boats with Greek Fire, and dropped it through pipes
upon the Russian ships, so that a strange miracle was offered to view. Upon seeing the
flames, the Rus cast themselves into the sea-water, being anxious to escape, but the survivors
returned home. When they came once more to their native land, where each recounted
to his kinsfolk the course of events and described the fire launched from the
ships, they related that the Greeks had in their possession the lightning from heaven, and
had set them on fire by pouring it forth, so that the Rus could not conquer them.
Tady tolik informací není, máme tady ale popis trubic, ze kterých Oheň prskali.
In the early twelfth century Anna Comnena described the same method of
using Greek Fire as a sea weapon in the A lexiad, her lively and detailed biography
of her father, the Emperor Alexios I (1081-1118). Alexios took
some trouble to increase its efficiency as a naval weapon, but the principle
appears to be the same as that 200 years earlier. The emperor himself
visited the ship-yards to instruct the ship-builders, and to increase the
moral effect of Greek Fire on barbarians, he had animal heads fixed on
the tubes which discharged it:
O dvěsta let později se mnoho nezměnilo, přidali jenom zvířecí hlavice na konce plamenometů:
. . . a head of a lion or other land animal made in brass or iron with the mouth open and
gilded over so that their mere aspect was terrifying. And the fire which was to be directed
against the enemy through tubes he mades to pass through the mouths of the beasts, so
that it seemed as if the lions . . . were vomiting the fire.
Typicky to byl lev.
Internet je úžasná věc. Citace nahoře je "Anna Comnena, The Alexiad (translated by E. A. S. Dawes, London 1928) XI,
p. 292-3.". Když jsem to ověřoval (jo, je to tam), udělal jsem rychlé ctrl+F a v knize XIII je následující:
https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/basis/A ... xiad13.asp
Kniha byla psaná kolem roku 1148.
Barbaři se pokusili dotáhnout beranidlo ke hradbám. Obránci se jim vysmáli, otevřeli brány se slovy, že takovou díru by to jejich beranidlo stejně nedokázalo udělat, vyrazili ven a zahnali je. Následně beranidlo spálili tím, že na něj z hradeb lili oheň.
... None the less, fire was thrown down from above on to this engine which  now stood idle and immovable for the aforesaid reasons, and converted it into ashes.
Je to popis obrany byzantinské kolonie jménem Dyrrachium.
... Barbaři se následně pokusili podkopat, obléhaní našli místo, kam se podkopali, prokopali se k nim... A tohle je nádherný kus textu:
Then they opened up a little hole opposite and when they saw the quantity of workers by means of this peep-hole, they burnt their faces to ashes with fire.
Now this fire is prepared from the following ingredients. The readily combustible rosin is collected from the pine and other similar evergreen trees and mixed with sulphur. Then it is introduced into reed-pipes and blown by the man using it with a strong continuous breath and at the other end fire is applied to it and it bursts into flame and falls like a streak of lightning on the faces of the men opposite. This fire the men of Dyrrachium used directly they were face to face with the enemy, and burnt their beards and faces. And the enemy could be seen, like a swarm of bees which has been smoked out, rushing oat in disorder from the place they had entered in good order.
OK, ale tohle vůbec nesedí na ostatní zdroje. Dovolím si vznést hypotézu, že dcera císaře má zakázáno vynášet detaily vojenského tajemství, i když píše biografii o svém tatínkovi.
Barbaři postavili monstrózní obléhací věž. Vypadalo to, že je moc vysoká a špatně hořlavá na to, aby si s ní dokázali poradit Ohněm, a hořel vždycky jehom vršek, ale barbaři byli níž. Aby byli schopni chrstnout napalm až nahoru, postavili si na své straně vlastní věž, nahoru natahali Oheň a chrlili ho na nepřátele odtamtud. Samotný oheň nestačil. Text se mi nechce luštit detailně, ale pomáhali si veškerými hořlavinami ve městě, aby to byli schopní zapálit.
Next Alexius' soldiers carried up the liquid fire to the top story of the open structure with intent to shoot it against the wooden tower opposite. But this idea and its execution did not seem sufficient for the complete destruction of the machine. For the fire when directed against it would only catch the extreme top of the tower. So what did they devise? they filled the space between the wooden tower and the city-tower with all kinds of inflammable material and poured streams of oil upon it. To this they applied fire, namely torches and fire-brands, which smouldered for a short time, then flared up a little and finally burst into tall flames. As the fiery streaks of the liquid fire also contributed their share, that whole terrific construction all made of wood cauglit fire, and made an immense noise and was a terrible sight for the eyes. And that enormous fire was seen for thirteen stades round. The tumult and the confusion of the barbarians inside was tremendous and hopeless, for some were caught by the fire and burnt to ashes, and others threw themselves to the ground from the top. And there was also much shouting and wild confusion among the barbarians outside who re-echoed their cries.
On his way Cantacuzenus came to a small fortress, called Mylus' fort, and immediately set up siege-engines and besieged it. And the Romans approached the walls unconcernedly, some threw fire on the gates and burnt them down, while others climbed up the wall and reached the battlements.
Používání ohně bylo součástí obléhací taktiky byzantinců, ale tehdy byli tak macho, že nečekali, až hradby shoří a slézali je ještě i svépomocí (na jiných místech, pochopitelně). Mimochodem, tady se píše, že je na hradby "vrhali" a nebylo to součástí připravených (konvenčních) obléhacích strojů, které zjevně používali také a nepoužívali tedy Oheň jako ultimátní, univerzální zbraň.
At the same time many also spoke to him of Palaeologus' untiring industry. For Palaeologus had now planned to set fire to Robert's huge wooden tower, and had collected naphtha and pitch and faggots of dry wood and catapults on the walls, and was awaiting the enemy's attack.
Tady je, mrška. Já věděl, že se k té ropě přiznají. Zase tady ale chybí síra a není zmiňované, z čeho ten dehet mají (to budou nějak zpracované borovice, co máme kousek nahoru). Mimochodem, tady máme zmínku o katapultu (ty jsou cool), ne o plamenometu (ty jsou over-rated).
Tady máme Araby používající hořlaviny jako granáty. Autorka to považuje za mazaný trik.
For the interval spent by Balduinus in idleness was most diligently used by them as a time of recovery. They devised the following cunning trick. To all seeming they had an eye to making terms of peace and sent embassies to Balduinus about it; but in reality while the terms of peace were under discussion, they were preparing their defence, and while they kept him buoyed up with hope they were forming machinations against him. For having noticed his great slackness in the war, and also that the soldiers outside the walls had lost heart, one night they filled a number of clay  jars full of liquid pitch, and hurled them down on to the engines standing round the city. As the jars were necessarily broken to pieces in their fall, the liquid was poured all over the woodwork, and on to that they threw lighted torches. Then they brought other jars containing a great deal of naphtha which caught the fire and made the flames shoot up into the air and converted the Franks' engines into ashes. And the light of the breaking day mingled with the light from the towering blaze of the wooden sheds.